Windows

Anything concerning Windows be it Windows client operating system, Windows Server operating system, Windows Mobile, Windows Phone and more.

Active Directory Fine-Grained Password Policies

This post isn’t going to set the world on fire because of it’s revelations and new features; instead, I am going to talk about a feature that has been around since Windows Server 2008 called Fine Grained Password Policies. Active Directory Password Policies are, even in 2018, still misunderstood. For all the consulting engagements I […]

Meltdown and Spectre CPU Flaws on Windows Systems

Over the course of the last few days, there has been much said online about a security flaw which is affecting the X86 CPU architecture and more specifically Intel CPUs*. This is an issue which has been known since earlier in 2017 but has only recently started doing the rounds. The issue was uncovered by […]

Active Directory 2016 Time-Based Group Membership

Group membership control and management is one of the cornerstones of Active Directory Domain Services. In Windows Server 2016, Microsoft introduced a new feature to Active Directory that forms part of the Microsoft Privileged Access Management (PAM) strategy. When used in conjunction with automation, this can be used to provide Just-In-Time (JIT) access to protected […]

Apply Updates on Windows Nano Server 2016

In my previous post, List Updates on Windows Nano Server 2016, I talked about reporting the updates which are installed or missing from your Nano Servers. With that information in hand, you can now move to the more powerful aspect of actually patching them. In my environment, I don’t want my hosts going out to […]

List Updates on Windows Nano Server 2016

Windows Server 2016 introduced the new SKU, Nano Server. Nano Server is an extremely low footprint operating system designed for micro services and rapid deployment and provisioning and currently supports roles including Failover Clustering, Hyper-V, File Server, Web Server and DNS Server. With Nano Server being completely headless and at this moment in time, not […]

RDS and the Case of the Mistaken PKI OID

Earlier this morning, I was working with our support team to work out an issue they were having in an environment where Remote Desktop Services had stopped working. Trying to connect to a server via RDS simply failed with a Network Level Authentication warning, strange, given it was a domain environment and everything should be […]

Hunting and Decrypting EFS Encrypted Files

At home last week, I started doing some preparations for upgrading my home server from Windows Server 2012 R2 to Windows Server 2016. This server was originally installed using Windows Server 2012 R2 Essentials and since, I have performed a Standard edition, edition upgrade on the machine which means that the host has ADDS, ADCS, NPS and some other roles installed as part of the original Essentials server installation. We all know that unbinding ADDS and ADCS can be a bit of a bore which is why nobody in the age of virtualization should be installing ADDS and ADCS on a single server together but that’s by the by.

When I started looking at decommissioning the ADCS role, I noticed that an EFS certificate had been issued to my domain user account. I’ve never knowingly used EFS but the presence of a certificate for that purpose lead me to believe there may be some files out there so I started looking.

EFS was a technology that appeared circa Windows XP to allow users to encrypt files before BitLocker was a thing. It was a nice idea but it was troubled and flawed in that it was enabled by default and users could self-encrypt files without IT having implemented the proper tools to allow them to recover the files when disaster struck.

Hyper-V Replication Firewall Rules on Nano Server

One of the resiliency features in Hyper-V, Hyper-V Replicas allows you to replicate a VM on a timed interval of as low as 30 seconds. This isn’t a new feature but is a great one none-the-less and is ideally suited to organisations with multiple data centres wanting to protect their VMs across two or more sites without the need for expensive SAN replication technologies.

Nano Server ships by default with the Windows Firewall enabled and there are two rules for Hyper-V Replicas which are both disabled by default. If you want to use Hyper-V Replica, even once you’ve configured everything you need via the Hyper-V Manager console or via PowerShell such as virtual networks and enabling the Hyper-V Replica feature, you will still need to configure this rule.

Setting PowerShell as the Default Shell in Server Core

There is a problem that most people will notice when they start using Server Core and that is that it uses Command Prompt as it’s default shell. This means that if you want to use any PowerShell Cmdlets, you need to step up to PowerShell first. I know this doesn’t seem like a hardship but if you do it enough, it gets tiresome, especially when you think that the Active Directory Cmdlets all live in PowerShell.